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 CHAPTER 1 : Pests and Plant Diseases

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staysi wullur
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PostSubject: CHAPTER 1 : Pests and Plant Diseases   Sun Aug 09, 2009 4:32 pm

Pests and Plant diseases

CHAPTER 1


1.1 ABSTRACK

The being life in the world always depends on the plants directly or indirectly. Plants can utilize solar energy sources, substance-other substances into the food substances that are useful for the organism. Besides that, plant can result food material for human, also complete another life need.
The plant is not directly useful to manage water manner in the soil and keeps soil fertility on the dangers of erosion. Besides that, as a result of the process assimilation plants can lack substance will oxygen atmosphere.
Of there we can be understood will our life dependency on plant. With the increasing number of population and the limited area that can be utilized for the growth of useful plants, the world we face many difficulties to meet the needs of life and provide the welfare of the world population.
The quality of plants is the most things important for farmers to result the good crop. It can reach if available effort of farmer in settles all problems which will at dealing. According to Department Agriculture, there are some problems that we have to face together in developing of Agriculture commodity that is productivity problems, even distribution of production all along year, production quality and disturb of pests and diseases plantation.
Since seed, cultivation of seedlings, harvesting until at rice barn ever be available its relationship with pest disturb, patogen, weeds or because environment factor that agree with plant.
Growth of plant already influence by availability of water, temperature, humidity, radiation and genetic factor in plant. Sometimes, the human is cannot manage plant growing factors accord to what do at need by that plant is alone. So in the end plant suffer sick at causes by environment factor that don’t body live that at physiological disease mention.
Pest and disease of plantation is the problem for farmers. For that, the farmers must to know the method pest control to prohibited detriment economically and environment damage.
Impact disturbance of pest, a researcher from India ever explain that the plants detriment because disturb of pest is 20%. If that still happen the plants detriment will more and more the greater.
Rice production at Indonesian on year 1986 as much 270.000 tons. If impact of pests, pathogen, and weeds as many 20%, with decrease effect after harvest and transportation as many 10%. So detriment which will happen as much 100.000 tons. And if we account in rupiah (with price of rice per kilogram Rp. 3000,00) the detriment will be 30 milliard. That money enough to make 1000 schools building and tools.
To meet the needs of food only for the world's population, amounting to 3 milliard at the time now we've got trouble and we can already imagine the difficulties we will face later in the year 2000 where the world's population has increased again to about 5 milliard the amount the area are agriculture increasingly limited.
Such as bigness the character plant influence in human life, but until now still many people that not aware will detriment that. The knowledge about pests, diseases and method control still haven’t many at knows by farmers. Because that, the knowledge about it is very important to know by farmers or peoples that works at agriculture field.
















1.2 RATIONALE
Pests and plant disease have old stuff for farmers and people that work at agriculture field. Even less currently was seen very clear detriment which evoked by effect of pest disturbance. Mostly people maybe haven’t known definition of pest and plant disease so that they don’t know how to avoid it. Even they just try manners that maybe not exact in reduce pest. For that in this writing will explained about definition of pest and plant disease.
On plant consist of various effect diseased kind factor influence of environmentally. And each plant disease has many kinds its method control. If farmers don’t know various plant disease and their method controls therefore there are many plants which won’t grow thriving. In this writing will be explained for farmers various plant disease with its method control. So, if that happen the farmer have known its method and can practice it.
A variety effort at agricultural field was done as using up of superior type, irrigation that enough, soiled working and plant preserve that qualifies and botanical diseased pest remove.
Have while it farmers can knowing various plant disease or pest type, one that often light upon plant bar that is at plantation or agricultural acreage them.
The government will be responsible about problem which often faced by farmers. Especially, problems about pests and plant disease that can destroy plant result.
Because that, if this problems just is let even without look for solution to pest control and its prevention, then will negative impact for farmers and also another society, since it concerns food plant problem that constitute the basic requirement for human.
In production increase effort, the farmer must able to unite between production increases efforts with efforts pest controlled in order that pest population not straight bloomed to level that detriment growth of plant. In carry on effort farmer activity, each decision stage that chosen by farmer must pay attention two benefits, beside able to increase plant production also it can keep development population of pest.
Efforts to do prevention and pest and plant disease control, not only been done by appointed PPL that orders government only but, must from farmers self that alone because the farmers which often front direct with plant disease kind various and pest.
Up till now, application strategy in protection of plants, especially agriculture commodity, is application of Control Integrated Pest (PHT). It is about population control or stage of Organism Plant Disturb by use of one or more from several control techniques that develop in one unity to prevent its emerge disadvantages in a economical manner and environment life damage.
But, in realization at square still found many problems impact pest or disease disturbance that. Besides that, to using of pesticide in fact the farmers still inclined not objective and dose exact. So that, pest and plant disease always disturb plants or become immune of pesticide.
So it is with method control that to do by government or farmers for being control which intruder plant. Its control there is some kind as control of Being Plant Intruder (OPT) in a cultivation technical manner, control of OPT in a physical/ mechanics manner, control of OPT in a biology manner and last by made use of pesticide chemical material.
In this writing will be explained about kind of potential pests which often aggress various agriculture commodity that at cultivation by society.
But, in realization at square still found many problems impact pest or disease disturbance that. Besides that, to using of pesticide in fact the farmers still inclined not objective and dose exact. So that, pest and plant disease always disturb plants or become immune of pesticide.

When plant already aggressed, an effort which must to do is control as soon as possible. If its control efforts is late, can emerge be even greater detriment. Disease control effort that generically been done is with fungsida spraying or bakterisida. Shortly comes to pieces plant that aggress by isolates it of healthy plant.
Because of see a great many plants that died cause disturbance of pest and plant disease. In this a way certain will be help to farmers and peoples which work in agriculture field for produce result the plants that free of pest and disease.
Indication that happens because of physiological disease sometimes identify with indication that happen cause virus brunt. The difference sport of the two of them that is physiological disease not has the quality infectious, whereas virus disease can infect to healthy plant.
Plant damage caused by several things as lack/excess hara disease, contaminated herbicide, result soil sterilizer, pesticide, air pollution, low temperature, high temperature, over water, dryness, thunderclap and for there are buildings. So that is the bringing on damage to plants so that the farmer can experience big detriment even loses all plant of them.
A pest is organism which damages of plant. Boundary between pest beings with being not pest is not like that clear, depended the human which evaluate. Organism that potentially becomes a pest that is nematoda, snail (mollusca), acarina (animal eight legged), hexapoda/ insect (animal six legged), bird and mammals.
Disease on plant there are some kind that is because mushroom, bacteria and virus. Mushroom, bacteria and virus has different method in bit plant. This in writing will explained plant disease which the most dangerous it because by mushroom, bacteria and virus.
Season in length plant as rice plant, kedele/soybean, corn and others ecology condition always change. That thing affected not its stable balance between pest population and natural enemy (predator, parasite and patogen).
Be different with tahunan plant its ecosystem already stable, so that balance pest population and happen natural enemy and almost pest never exploded since mark sense nature enemy.







1.3 GOALS
This writing is made in order that readers get:
Know about pest and plant disease definition.
Know about Organism that potentially becomes pest.
Explain about plants kind that often stricken disturbance of pest and its solution.
Descriptions about physiological diseases that can be wreck the plants.
Know because its appearance plant disease.
Explain about difference between Pest and Semusim Plant disease and pest and Tahunan plant disease.
Explain the methods of pest control and plant disease.
With know things upon, the reader can understand and know with correct all things that relate to pest.

1.5 OBJECTIVES
In this writing I will explained about Pests and Plant disease. And this writing gets to be read by farmers, students although all people that work in agriculture field. This writing gets benefits for everyone that have problem with pests and plant disease. Especially for all farmers in order to as soon as possible prevent disturbance of Pest to plant.



1.4 METHODOLOGY

Interview
Interview is a question and answer among speaker and informant which to do for found out information about a problems. Anyone that wants to found information usually will do information to informants that have knowledge or specialist peoples about its problem. In problems about Pest and plant disease, I will found out information by propose severally question to farmers and to specialist peoples in agriculture field.
Literature Study
Literature Study constitute a method to obtain information in form reading both by books at library nor such as at book store. With to do literature study we can compare which information that more complete about its problems which could we obtain from reading several books. In problems about pest and plant disease, I will examine pass through books at library. After that, I will add together information from it several book.
Observation
Observation is a method to obtain information by does direct observation at the site that related with a certain problems. By make do observation, we can know straight forward how the place situation and whomsoever in concerned in its problem. Moreover we can have a finger in every pie its problem. In problems of Pests and Plant Diseases, I will make do observation at agriculture area and found information of farmers in there. Thereby, I will get observation result information of my self.
Questionnaire
Questionnaire constitutes a method to found information by make questionnaire about a certain problems and will give to everyone. And will be answered accord with their knowledge. By undertaking this method, we will find opinion; statement and a variety answer which have a difference of several people. In this writing about pests and plant disease, I will found information of students and peoples that work in agriculture field.
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